Logic operations

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Logic operations

Postby bscholte » Tue Aug 07, 2018 9:06 am

During application development I frequently encounter the need to do logic operations on bytes or numbers (AND, OR, XOR, NOT). For each of these, there are assembler instructions and most programming languages have these implemented in some form. Since I haven't found a better way, I currently get by with "shifting" and "odding" the numbers or running through other bitwise shifts. This is quite cumbersome and seems a waste of resources. Question: what would be the most efficient way to set up a "Logic" module that can run such operations? I would prefer to use available Oberon procs, but some inline assembly instructions seem like a good idea too.
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Re: Logic operations

Postby cfbsoftware » Tue Aug 07, 2018 1:00 pm

Read Niklaus Wirth's paper titled SET: A neglected data type, and its compilation for the ARM.

To perform these operations on INTEGERs you will need to type-cast INTEGERs to SETs and vice versa. The Oberon compilers for Cortex-M include a non-standard function BITS which type-casts an INTEGER to a SET.

The standard function ORD can be used to typecast a SET back to an INTEGER. There is no inefficiency introduced as no instructions are generated for these 'pseudo-functions'. It is just a mechanism used by Oberon to tell the compiler to switch off type-checking during the assignment.
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Re: Logic operations

Postby bscholte » Fri Aug 10, 2018 11:41 am

Excellent! That works and is actually easier.

As suggested, I used the BITS() to cast from integer to set and ORD() to cast back. The rest is arithmetic on sets.

A small module to test the workings. Not tested thoroughly, but....
(Below are the "Out.Bits" and "Out.Bool" to show the results).
Code: Select all
MODULE Logic;

IMPORT Main, Out;

VAR I, K:INTEGER;

PROCEDURE ShowResult(J:INTEGER);
BEGIN
  Out.Int(J, 4); Out.String(" = "); Out.Bits(J); Out.Ln;
END ShowResult;

BEGIN
  Out.String("$FFFF = "); Out.Bits(0FFFFH);Out.Ln;
  I:=32; K:=6;
  Out.String("I = 32 = "); Out.Bits(I);Out.Ln;
  Out.String("Bit 6 in I with I=32: "); Out.Bool(6 IN BITS(I)); Out.Ln;
  K:=5;
  Out.String("Bit 5 in I with I=32: "); Out.Bool(5 IN BITS(I)); Out.Ln;
  K:=37;
  Out.String("K = 37 = "); Out.Bits(K);Out.Ln;
  Out.String("I = 32 = "); Out.Bits(I);Out.Ln;
 
  Out.String("Logical K OR I with K=37 and I=32: ");
  ShowResult(ORD(BITS(K) + BITS(I)));
 
  Out.String("Logical I XOR K with K=37 and I=32: ");
  ShowResult(ORD(BITS(I) - BITS(K)));
 
  Out.String("Logical K AND I with K=37 and I=32: ");
  ShowResult(ORD(BITS(K) * BITS(I)));
 
  I:=32; K:=33;
  Out.String("Logical K AND I with K=33 and I=32: ");
  ShowResult(ORD(BITS(K) * BITS(I)));
 
  I:=37; K:=33;
  Out.String("Logical K AND I with K=33 and I=37: ");
  ShowResult(ORD(BITS(K) * BITS(I)));
 
  I:=32;
  Out.String("Logical NOT I with I=32: ");
  ShowResult(ORD(BITS(0FFFFFFFFH-I)));

END Logic.

And the Out.Bool and Out.Bits Proc's to show the numbers:
Code: Select all
PROCEDURE Bool*(B:BOOLEAN);
BEGIN
  IF B THEN String("TRUE")
       ELSE String("FALSE")
       END
END Bool;

PROCEDURE Bits*(I:INTEGER);
VAR n: BYTE;
    s: ARRAY 34 OF CHAR;
    S: SET;
BEGIN
  S:=BITS(I);
  s[0]:="B";
  s[33]:=0X;
  FOR n:=0 TO 31 DO
    IF 31-n IN S THEN s[n+1]:="1"
                 ELSE s[n+1]:="0"
                 END
  END;
  String(s);
END Bits;
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Location: Austria

Re: Logic operations

Postby bscholte » Fri Aug 10, 2018 3:35 pm

To be (hopefully) complete, a short module to implement common logic ops.
Code: Select all
MODULE Logic;

PROCEDURE* And*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 AND 3 = 0101 AND 0011 = 0001 = 1*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD(BITS(A) * BITS(B))
END And;

PROCEDURE* Or*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 OR 3 = 0101 OR 0011 = 0111 = 7*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD(BITS(A) + BITS(B))
END Or;

PROCEDURE Not*(A:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. NOT 1 = 0*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD(BITS(0FFFFFFFFH-A))
END Not;

PROCEDURE Nand*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 NAND 3 = 0101 NAND 0011 = 1110 = 14*)
BEGIN
  RETURN Not(And(A, B))
END Nand;

PROCEDURE Nor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 NOR 3 = 0101 NOR 0011 = 1000 = 8*)
BEGIN
  RETURN Not(Or(A, B))
END Nor;

PROCEDURE Xor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 XOR 3 = 0101 XOR 0011 = 0110 = 6*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD((BITS(A) - BITS(B))+(BITS(B)-BITS(A)))
END Xor;

PROCEDURE Xnor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 XNOR 3 = 0101 XNOR 0011 = 1001 = 9*)
BEGIN
  RETURN Not(Xor(A, B))
END Xnor;

END Logic.
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Location: Austria

Re: Logic operations

Postby cfbsoftware » Sat Aug 11, 2018 1:41 am

Very good. However, just a couple of minor tweaks produces a code file which is more efficient and exactly half the size (108 bytes vs. 216).

Noting that Wirth says in his paper:

There is set complementation (unary minus)

The code for Not
Code: Select all
ORD(BITS(0FFFFFFFFH-A))

becomes more simply:
Code: Select all
ORD(-BITS(A))

which generates 1 instruction instead of 2.

Additionally the availability of this unary minus operator for SETs makes the calls to Not in Nand, Nor etc. unnecessary, which in turn means those functions can also be made leaf procedures.

The complete tweaked version is:
Code: Select all
MODULE Logic;

PROCEDURE* And*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 AND 3 = 0101 AND 0011 = 0001 = 1*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD(BITS(A) * BITS(B))
END And;

PROCEDURE* Or*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 OR 3 = 0101 OR 0011 = 0111 = 7*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD(BITS(A) + BITS(B))
END Or;

PROCEDURE* Not*(A:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. NOT 1 = 0*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD(-BITS(A))
END Not;

PROCEDURE* Nand*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 AND 3 = 0101 AND 0011 = 0001 = 1*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD(-(BITS(A) * BITS(B)))
END Nand;

PROCEDURE* Nor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 OR 3 = 0101 OR 0011 = 0111 = 7*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD(-(BITS(A) + BITS(B)))
END Nor;

PROCEDURE* Xor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 XOR 3 = 0101 XOR 0011 = 0110 = 6*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD((BITS(A) - BITS(B)) + (BITS(B) - BITS(A)))
END Xor;

PROCEDURE* Xnor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 XNOR 3 = 0101 XNOR 0011 = 1001 = 9*)
BEGIN
  RETURN ORD(-((BITS(A) - BITS(B)) + (BITS(B) - BITS(A))))
END Xnor;

END Logic.


I assumed that your original logic is correct. This version should be 100% functionally equivalent.
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Re: Logic operations

Postby bscholte » Sun Aug 12, 2018 12:11 pm

Wow. Very elegant! Thanks.
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