Logic operations
Logic operations
During application development I frequently encounter the need to do logic operations on bytes or numbers (AND, OR, XOR, NOT). For each of these, there are assembler instructions and most programming languages have these implemented in some form. Since I haven't found a better way, I currently get by with "shifting" and "odding" the numbers or running through other bitwise shifts. This is quite cumbersome and seems a waste of resources. Question: what would be the most efficient way to set up a "Logic" module that can run such operations? I would prefer to use available Oberon procs, but some inline assembly instructions seem like a good idea too.

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Re: Logic operations
Read Niklaus Wirth's paper titled SET: A neglected data type, and its compilation for the ARM.
To perform these operations on INTEGERs you will need to typecast INTEGERs to SETs and vice versa. The Oberon compilers for CortexM include a nonstandard function BITS which typecasts an INTEGER to a SET.
The standard function ORD can be used to typecast a SET back to an INTEGER. There is no inefficiency introduced as no instructions are generated for these 'pseudofunctions'. It is just a mechanism used by Oberon to tell the compiler to switch off typechecking during the assignment.
To perform these operations on INTEGERs you will need to typecast INTEGERs to SETs and vice versa. The Oberon compilers for CortexM include a nonstandard function BITS which typecasts an INTEGER to a SET.
The standard function ORD can be used to typecast a SET back to an INTEGER. There is no inefficiency introduced as no instructions are generated for these 'pseudofunctions'. It is just a mechanism used by Oberon to tell the compiler to switch off typechecking during the assignment.
Re: Logic operations
Excellent! That works and is actually easier.
As suggested, I used the BITS() to cast from integer to set and ORD() to cast back. The rest is arithmetic on sets.
A small module to test the workings. Not tested thoroughly, but....
(Below are the "Out.Bits" and "Out.Bool" to show the results).
And the Out.Bool and Out.Bits Proc's to show the numbers:
As suggested, I used the BITS() to cast from integer to set and ORD() to cast back. The rest is arithmetic on sets.
A small module to test the workings. Not tested thoroughly, but....
(Below are the "Out.Bits" and "Out.Bool" to show the results).
Code: Select all
MODULE Logic;
IMPORT Main, Out;
VAR I, K:INTEGER;
PROCEDURE ShowResult(J:INTEGER);
BEGIN
Out.Int(J, 4); Out.String(" = "); Out.Bits(J); Out.Ln;
END ShowResult;
BEGIN
Out.String("$FFFF = "); Out.Bits(0FFFFH);Out.Ln;
I:=32; K:=6;
Out.String("I = 32 = "); Out.Bits(I);Out.Ln;
Out.String("Bit 6 in I with I=32: "); Out.Bool(6 IN BITS(I)); Out.Ln;
K:=5;
Out.String("Bit 5 in I with I=32: "); Out.Bool(5 IN BITS(I)); Out.Ln;
K:=37;
Out.String("K = 37 = "); Out.Bits(K);Out.Ln;
Out.String("I = 32 = "); Out.Bits(I);Out.Ln;
Out.String("Logical K OR I with K=37 and I=32: ");
ShowResult(ORD(BITS(K) + BITS(I)));
Out.String("Logical I XOR K with K=37 and I=32: ");
ShowResult(ORD(BITS(I)  BITS(K)));
Out.String("Logical K AND I with K=37 and I=32: ");
ShowResult(ORD(BITS(K) * BITS(I)));
I:=32; K:=33;
Out.String("Logical K AND I with K=33 and I=32: ");
ShowResult(ORD(BITS(K) * BITS(I)));
I:=37; K:=33;
Out.String("Logical K AND I with K=33 and I=37: ");
ShowResult(ORD(BITS(K) * BITS(I)));
I:=32;
Out.String("Logical NOT I with I=32: ");
ShowResult(ORD(BITS(0FFFFFFFFHI)));
END Logic.
Code: Select all
PROCEDURE Bool*(B:BOOLEAN);
BEGIN
IF B THEN String("TRUE")
ELSE String("FALSE")
END
END Bool;
PROCEDURE Bits*(I:INTEGER);
VAR n: BYTE;
s: ARRAY 34 OF CHAR;
S: SET;
BEGIN
S:=BITS(I);
s[0]:="B";
s[33]:=0X;
FOR n:=0 TO 31 DO
IF 31n IN S THEN s[n+1]:="1"
ELSE s[n+1]:="0"
END
END;
String(s);
END Bits;
Re: Logic operations
To be (hopefully) complete, a short module to implement common logic ops.
Code: Select all
MODULE Logic;
PROCEDURE* And*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 AND 3 = 0101 AND 0011 = 0001 = 1*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD(BITS(A) * BITS(B))
END And;
PROCEDURE* Or*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 OR 3 = 0101 OR 0011 = 0111 = 7*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD(BITS(A) + BITS(B))
END Or;
PROCEDURE Not*(A:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. NOT 1 = 0*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD(BITS(0FFFFFFFFHA))
END Not;
PROCEDURE Nand*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 NAND 3 = 0101 NAND 0011 = 1110 = 14*)
BEGIN
RETURN Not(And(A, B))
END Nand;
PROCEDURE Nor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 NOR 3 = 0101 NOR 0011 = 1000 = 8*)
BEGIN
RETURN Not(Or(A, B))
END Nor;
PROCEDURE Xor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 XOR 3 = 0101 XOR 0011 = 0110 = 6*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD((BITS(A)  BITS(B))+(BITS(B)BITS(A)))
END Xor;
PROCEDURE Xnor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 XNOR 3 = 0101 XNOR 0011 = 1001 = 9*)
BEGIN
RETURN Not(Xor(A, B))
END Xnor;
END Logic.

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 Posts: 441
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 Contact:
Re: Logic operations
Very good. However, just a couple of minor tweaks produces a code file which is more efficient and exactly half the size (108 bytes vs. 216).
Noting that Wirth says in his paper:
The code for Not
becomes more simply:
which generates 1 instruction instead of 2.
Additionally the availability of this unary minus operator for SETs makes the calls to Not in Nand, Nor etc. unnecessary, which in turn means those functions can also be made leaf procedures.
The complete tweaked version is:
I assumed that your original logic is correct. This version should be 100% functionally equivalent.
Noting that Wirth says in his paper:
There is set complementation (unary minus)
The code for Not
Code: Select all
ORD(BITS(0FFFFFFFFHA))
Code: Select all
ORD(BITS(A))
Additionally the availability of this unary minus operator for SETs makes the calls to Not in Nand, Nor etc. unnecessary, which in turn means those functions can also be made leaf procedures.
The complete tweaked version is:
Code: Select all
MODULE Logic;
PROCEDURE* And*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 AND 3 = 0101 AND 0011 = 0001 = 1*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD(BITS(A) * BITS(B))
END And;
PROCEDURE* Or*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 OR 3 = 0101 OR 0011 = 0111 = 7*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD(BITS(A) + BITS(B))
END Or;
PROCEDURE* Not*(A:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. NOT 1 = 0*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD(BITS(A))
END Not;
PROCEDURE* Nand*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 AND 3 = 0101 AND 0011 = 0001 = 1*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD((BITS(A) * BITS(B)))
END Nand;
PROCEDURE* Nor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 OR 3 = 0101 OR 0011 = 0111 = 7*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD((BITS(A) + BITS(B)))
END Nor;
PROCEDURE* Xor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 XOR 3 = 0101 XOR 0011 = 0110 = 6*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD((BITS(A)  BITS(B)) + (BITS(B)  BITS(A)))
END Xor;
PROCEDURE* Xnor*(A, B:INTEGER):INTEGER;
(*e.g. 5 XNOR 3 = 0101 XNOR 0011 = 1001 = 9*)
BEGIN
RETURN ORD(((BITS(A)  BITS(B)) + (BITS(B)  BITS(A))))
END Xnor;
END Logic.
Re: Logic operations
Wow. Very elegant! Thanks.